Enrichment Spending and Inequality

August 15, 2013

NYT(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

The New York Times published the above chart last December here’s a link if you would like a better look. It basically shows that both college attendance and completion and private enrichment spending have been increasing at a much faster rate among wealthier students.

I find the enrichment spending trend particularly interesting for a couple of reasons. First, like Collin’s grit measure, it seems like an example of something that has been lurking in the error term of our limited understanding of K-12 trends.  I’m not sure how the authors define “enrichment spending” but $8,900 per year for well-to-do kids is striking.  How much does this matter? I’m not sure but I think it ought to be rigorously researched. It could matter quite a bit.

Four states have average family incomes for a family of four above six figures and one cannot help but wonder how much more this trend influences academic trends than in other states. Washington DC has been gentrifying strongly and has also had a large increase in the economic achievement gap despite large gains for low-income kids.  Could this trend be partially explained by this phenomenon?

What, if anything, is to be done about this? A vast increase in K-12 spending aimed at the cultural enrichment of poor children is not in the cards given the rotten state of state and federal finances, and it is just as well given the fact that the relationship between spending and outcomes is already hazy to say the least in the public school system. Just as a reminder, in the insightful words of Paul Hill:

Money is used so loosely in public education – in ways that few understand and that lack plausible connections to student learning – that no one can say how much money, if used optimally, would be enough. Accounting systems make it impossible to track how much is spent on a particular child or school, and hide the costs of programs and teacher contracts. Districts can’t choose the most cost-effective programs because they lack evidence on costs and results.

The country is broke and even if we did raise taxes to punishing levels to fund this stuff no one should feel the least bit confident that enrichment spending would actually work if funnelled through the existing system. Jay’s idea about supplementing private summer camp attendance might be a better idea but again public finances are a total mess. This is currently in the private realm and it is necessary to keep it that way.

This would seem to leave us with at least few possibilities. Better use of technology may enhance the efforts of both public and private enrichment efforts. Khan Academy is doubtlessly one of the most powerful remedial education tools ever developed. It is free of charge and has branched out into the fine arts, and it is hardly alone. Sandra Day O’Connor has an online civics project for instance but I suspect that these efforts will require some concerted effort to realise their full potential. Putting them up online is a first crucial step, but one cannot help but to fear that their impact might be reminiscent of public libraries absent a sustained effort to get children to use them.

Fareed Zakaria summarizes the current debate on inequality, social mobility and schooling, but misses the crucial point.  The problem isn’t that we spend so little on the schooling of poor children but rather that we get so little for the massive amounts spent. American Black and Hispanic students score closer to the average score in Mexico (a nation that spends a fraction of what we do per pupil and which suffers from a much greater poverty problem) than to top performing scores. Using various policy mechanisms to increase ROI for K-12 spending runs you straight into reactionary resistance but it easily represents the most promising avenue for improving the prospects for disadvantaged children.

Oh, and by the way, as the New York Daily News kindly points out it does work.

Odds and Ends

March 12, 2012

In case you missed the 60 Minutes segment on the Khan Academy.  You can watch the video and read the transcript here.

And the New York Times reports on a study conducted in New York City comparing student achievement at 10 schools using a Core Knowledge approach against the achievement at 10 schools using existing (mostly Balanced Literacy).  It find greater gains in the Core Knowledge schools in reading comprehension as well as content knowledge in social studies and science.

The Way of the Future: Next Steps at Khan Academy

December 1, 2011

(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

Khan Academy has announced next evolutionary steps: 5 new faculty members to extend into the arts and humanities, a crowdsourcing project for videos and blended learning experiments, starting with summer camps in the Summer of 2012.  The O’Sullivan Foundation provided a $5m grant to get these projects underway.

I have wondered for some time whether Khan would choose to add new faculty. Despite the fact that Sal Khan is bright, talented and works diligently to research his topics for videos, there are limits to what a single person can do. I’ve noticed for instance that over the last few years I have gravitated towards reading multi-author blogs more than single-author blogs. The reason why is pretty simple: they tend to have more content and differences in perspective. The first two of the five new faculty are already at it: Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris have begun to produce content on art, history, and the humanities. Dr. Zucker was formerly Chair of Art and Design History at Pratt Institute while Dr. Harris was Director of Digital Learning at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. You can watch their early videos here.

The crowd sourcing project is obviously very interesting, if a little baffling to me. If you can start a global encyclopedia through crowd sourcing, I guess there will be a way to sort high quality videos from drek.

Although Khan Academy makes for one of the most potentially powerful remedial and supplemental tools that one can hope to access for free, I find myself most interested in the progress of blended learning models. If you haven’t read the Wired Magazine article on Khan Academy, shame on you. Go read it now!  There you will read about a 10-year-old who has mastered Trig. Or was well on his way to mastering Trig when the article was written. He might be into calculus these days. Those trig equations are giving me a bad flashback to 1985, but Matthew Carpenter is having fun with them.

After reading the Wired article, ask yourself if there is any reason why Matthew Carpenter ought not to be able to take a trigonometry end of course exam. If he passes, it seems rather self-evident to me that he ought to be given credit for content mastery, and allowed to plow ahead. A future in which content mastery determines course credits and education funding, rather than mere seat-time, makes so much sense that it will surely be fiercely resisted. Unsuccessfully.

Keep up the good work Sal. How long can it be until we see some similar platforms built for more specific niche purposes? Stay tuned…


March 12, 2011

(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

Salman Khan on using video to improving education, and taking Khan Academy to the next level. Well worth watching.

Khan Explains Yet Another Reason to Distrust the French

October 9, 2010

(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

Alec Baldwin and other Hollywood types were going to move to France after Dubya won the 2000 Presidential election. While they are there, perhaps they could start a campaign to have France pay back Haiti for the outrageous payment which it extracted by embargo for “lost property” (e.g. slaves) after the Haitian Revolution.

Thirteen billion dollars would do the trick, unless you want to charge interest, in which case the French might need to sell Versailles and the Riviera to raise capital. The French could put the money into a micro-finance outfit to help Haitian entrepreneurs, and call it even. It’s not like the money is going to create any new products, jobs or services in France after all.

Khan Academy ROCKS

October 7, 2010

(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

So here is what I have learned so far from Khan Academy.

First, my son Benjamin and I reviewed the French Revolution, the rise of and fall of Napoleon the sordid history of France in Haiti in this series of videos.

Next, I learned more about the housing bubble in this series of videos.

My son Jacob, who is in 3rd grade, reviewed two digit multiplication in this video.

Khan Academy covers hundreds of topics, and is adding more. The main menu is here.

A bedrock assumption for any system of schooling, whether public or private, is that knowledge is scarce and must be imparted by trained specialists to students. Knowledge is no longer scarce, and our methods for communicating it have been evolving. Our training of specialists and pairing them with students leaves much to be desired.

I don’t know where all of this is going, but I am anxious to find out.

Way of the Future: Khan Academy

October 2, 2010

(Guest Post by Matthew Ladner)

So a 33 year old hedge fund analyst has created a Youtube site to put up hundreds of discrete lessons in Math, Science, Finance and History. Khan Academy gives these lessons away for free, and there are online tests available on the site.

Here is a PBS Newshour story on Khan Academy:

So, is it just me, or could people use Khan Academy to develop low-cost and high quality private schools? Remember, you heard it here first.